Following topics (among any others, related to the origin of vertebrates) will be addressed:

     Origin of vertebrate structure ("new head", somite differentiation, etc.)

     Origin of bone tissue

     Origin of the neural crest and placodes

     Acrania-Craniota relationships

     Relationships of vertebrates to other chordates and invertebrates

     Fossil record

     Significance of conodonts

     Gene duplication in the origin of vertebrates

     Historical aspects of the studies on the origin of vertebrates